I've seen this several times (admin for 600 design oriented macs). 90% of the time we've found it to be a corrupt element in the file. For example, using split half searches (print the first half of the set, then the second half. In almost every case, you will find that one half will print, meaning the corruption is in the other half). Then, split half print from the set that failed, etc.... Doing this, you can usually pinpoint the page that has the corruption. If you only have one page in your document to begin with, you can skip the previous instructions.
From there you have to go back to the orininal document (InDesign, for example) and split half DELETE design elements from it (just select half of the text/image/art from the page and delete), export to pdf, print, etc... split half until you find the offending item, recreating it or simply resaving the original element will fix
I've had to do this more times than I can count. ;-)
This thread was so helpful, thanks everyone! I was struggling with the same problem today with Adobe 9 Reader and was able to get around it by following a suggestion here to use Print / Advanced / Print as Image.
This was the first time I ever had this problem. I received the following errors: "The document could not be printed", "There were no pages selected to print", "There was a drawing error."