It could be done with smart paint, but the objects would not overlap to achieve the color variations. I'd build it in layers, using transparency settings to get the blending color effect.
Creating the effect in the first place was the challenge. Good drawing and understanding of perspective was required to pull it off. Who was the original artist?
Why do you think there should be an efficient way? Creating original art requires imagination and lots of work.
Perhaps there will be a Triangulize filter in Illustrator, some day, that allows you to click-and-make-this in one step.