The short answer is maybe!
There is no magic button you can press to add colour to a B&W image. You can however, remove all but selected colours from a colour image and achieve (for example) a B&W portrait of a lady holding a red rose. You can also have green leaves with just a couple of extra steps too.
If this is what you are looking for, let us know. I'm sure you'll get a heap on replies.
I'm familar with all the present techniques used in CS5 using
adjustment layers and desaturation of color images; my real
question is if CS6 added any new artificial intelligence to the
process that might speed up the workflow of processes like this
No new techniques or technologies have gone into adding color to a B&W image in particular.
However, we did add the new Color Lookup adjustment layer, which gives some ability to add a variety of different looks and styles to an image.
The color lookups are generally used to simulate the way an image is printed to film, but you can simulate many different looks using the different color LUTs.