I have this problem with other Adobe programs, but the screen text is so tiny in ID it is barely readable. The only options affecting viewing are for the document itself, but I need to see the text in menus and panels as well at a greater size.
I don't want to change screen resolution, especially with three monitors in play.
Alas, there is no such option in InDesign as yet. Photoshop *does* have a Set UI Text Size option in its Preferences panel, so it's not beyond what the Adobe programmers can do (but perhaps they all work at a 640x480 rez).
With the appearance of high-resolution screens this has been asked a lot, lately. Do what the others did: file an official Feature Request, and hope for the best: https://www.adobe.com/cfusion/mmform/index.cfm?name=wishform