My layers disappeared on three occassions - I opened the photo in lightroom 4 did some adjustments, then opened the photo in Photoshop CS6 and made additional changes. The last time this occurred when I went back to lightroom, I noticed a 'meta data error' and when opened there were no layers. Unfortunately or fortunately, this didn't happen with all the photos I was processing so I don't know the exact sequence prior to loosing layers.
We'll need more information than that to go off of, and hopefully some sort of reproducibility to work with as well.
Are you still having Layers disappear? Are they layers or your whole image window missing?
Are you on Mac or Windows?
Since this could be video-related, Do you have the most up to date drivers for your video card?
If not, it would be prudent to start here.
If still sseeing the trouble after a driver update, can you post your system info from Photoshop's Help > System Info dialog?