Any tips for managing my Illustrator layers so I get consistent PSD exports?
Opening an Illustrator-created PSD gives me a lot of layers named <path>, single text layers in <group> folders, and some layers that have combined several layers named: <text> + <path> + <path> + <path> + <path>.
How can I make sure that single text layers aren't in <Groups> folders and that objects aren't combined into <path> + <path> + <path> + <path> single layers?
This entirely depends on what appearances you use and how you group things in AI. As the others said, anything with opacity (including clipping masks) and blending modes will always cause things to be flattened as may specific effects you use including certain Pathfinder stuff or Live Paint. The only way to be 100% sure is to create a top level layer for everything and avoid all the aforementioned stuff.
Not using any opacity. No clipping masks. No blending modes. No pathfinder, Live Paint, or symbols.
As an AE user, Mylesnium, I'm sure you can appreciate keeping elements modularly grouped. My usual workflow is to export from Illustrator to PSD, then import the PSD into AE as a comp. It allows text to become editable and PSD folders become AE Precomps. There's no way to do such things with a direct Illustator to AE import. (Text cannot become live and AE only interprets Illustrator's Top Layer as a layer so any sub-layer groupings get lost).
I think the biggest gotcha is something I just read, "Any layer with more than 5 sub-layers will be flattened" UGH!