In your screenshot you have a shape layer selected. In order to stroke paths you need to either save the path if it's a shape layer and make a new blank layer to add the stroke
or make your path using the paths option instead of shapes and use a non shape layer, smart object, adjustment layer to put the stroke on. In other words the active layer needs to be a pixel layer (such as layer 3 in your screenshot) in order to stroke a path with one of the brush tools.
I've just figured out while trying to stroke on a layer using ellipse shape.
Just select the shape with path selection tool and press ctrl+x then ctrl+v (just cut and paste it anywhere). Now the stroke options must be available.