The document can be viewed by other application.
I've not had problems reading PDF documents in Adobe Reader 10.3.
Provide more information about how the PDF was created, and what other PDF readers you can read it in (including what operating system you're using).
If you can provide a link to the file so other can test it, that would be a good idea. You can post the file on a service like Dropbox and provide a link to it.
Operating System: iOS 5.1.1
Adobe Reader Version 10.3
Document link: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/47503579/1987_TMV.pdf
Can be read by iDownloder Pro Free Version 2.0 and FTPManager Free 1.1.2
I loaded up your PDF file which is simple text but more than 5000 pages into Reader 10.3 on my iPad 3. I had exactly the same results as you. The pages are blank.
It could be read fine in Acrobat Pro X on my Macintosh.
But then I also loaded it in PDF Expert on the iPad, and I could read it.
I think this is one for the Adobe engineers to look at. Reader 10.3 is not handling very large file sizes well.
By the way, I did a review of both Reader and PDF Expert (not free $US 9.99) at this link:
Europe, Middle East and Africa