Please uninstall and reinstall the product
If this problem still occurs contact adobe technical support for help and mention the error code shown at the bottom of this screen.
Have you seen this: http://helpx.adobe.com/x-productkb/policy-pricing/configuration-error- cs5.html
If the knowledgebase article doesn't help you may need to uninstall and reinstall.
If it comes to that, after uninstalling run the cleaner tool (CS Cleaner Tool for installation problems | CCM, CS6, CS5.5, CS5, CS4, CS3), then run MSConfig and turn off all unnecessary starup items and services, especially antivirus and malware scanners, third party firewalls, browser helpers and toolbars, iTunes and messengers and reboot before running the installer again. You can run MSconfig again after the install to return to normal startup.
In addition, make sure the default printer is a local printer, not a network printer, the first time you try to launch ID.
Do you have any odd configurations for the system, like a small ssd with the OS and a second drive where you install programs?