I am having trouble accessing Master Pages/InDesign CS5 in Mavericks.
Normally double clicking in the Pages window directs me to that specific page or master.
It is not working since I uploaded the new Mavericks operating system.
I just got around to trying to replicate what you're experiencing. I launched CS5 in Mavericks and created a new document with 12 pages. I'm having no problems navigating through pages on the Pages panel.
Does this only happen with one file or with all files? If one file, I'd save the file as IDML and reopen. If all files, I'd try restoring your InDesign preferences: