What can be done to make Bridige recogonize recently contructed folders that were made in Microsoft Explorer?
I quit and restart both Bridge and PS without success. I don not wish to reboot each time this happens.
There's something weird happening on your computer. Bridge should constantly check the file system for changes, and new folders should appear quite soon after they are created. This suggests to me that either Bridge is broken on your computer, or the file system is misbehaving.
A quick fix for Bridge would be to update it to the latest version and/or reset preferences using Ctrl-click Bridge icon. That cures quite a lot of ills.
I have seen Windows Explorer behave strangely at times, when for example icons do not show up on the desktop until you refresh with F5. I have never found an explanation for this. However, if you are only seeing this behaviour in Bridge, then you can discount this.
The other thing which springs to mind is Bridge's problem with broken drives. Bridge builds a list of file system locations which it checks at regular intervals. If one of those locations has a problem, there is a knock-on effect. Maybe Bridge has stopped polling your folders for this reason.
I use a program called Sysinternals 'Process Monitor', which is now owned by Microsoft. It's a bit of a hacker's tool, and one of its jobs is to monitor file system activity by application. If you start it up and narrow activity down to File System and Bridge, you can see what Bridge is doing in real time. You should see it accessing a group of different locations every few seconds. Maybe one of those locations is very slow or inaccessible, and you might see it hang there.
If all that sounds a bit too technical, just have a look at the drives listed in "My Computer" and check they all work properly/promply.