"Tabs" such as you describe are not a feature set of Acrobat (or PDF for that matter). Bookmarks are.
With that said one could (with an appropriate authoring application) master authoring files having blocks along a margin that would be analagous to a "tab".
These would be present on the output PDF page content. Of course, there would be no tab extending out such as is had with tab inserts placed in a 3-ring binder.
To publish a PDF that is the manual I'd suggest authoring with FrameMaker or InDesign. Have Acrobat Pro for any requisite post-processing.