Thanks to Dave Watts @ Fig Leaf Software this question is answered.
Dave pointed me to this Adobe documentation: http://help.adobe.com/en_US/ColdFusion/10.0/Admin/WSc3ff6d0ea77859461172e0811cbf3639b1-7fe 6.html
The challenge was that it wasn't quite accurate. After futzing around a bit, I successfully installed the sqlitejdbc-v056.jar driver in the cf_root/cfusion/lib directory, restarted the Windows CF service, and the database was able to be entered as a datasource just fine.
Hope this helps someone else!