I found another useful bit of information. I was able to start all of my instances from Windows services. However, CF still isnt serving any pages for my instances. The only one that works is the base installation on port 8500. I'm still able to navigate to the CFAdmin on the main instance.
From there I was able to see from the instance manager that my instances were showing that they were stopped. This is a conflict between what the Windows service is telling me. According to the Windows services panel, they are listed as started. I tried to start them from the CF Admin instance manager, but nothing happened. (See Screenshot)
What log file would I check to determine why the server isn't responding?
CF logs are in [CF dir]\cfusion\logs. There's also a log dir at [CF dir]\cfusion\jetty\logs, but those might just before the admin server connector (for stuff like CFB integration and RDS, I think, but am never sure).
I clear my log files on CF start-up (this is just a dev machine, so I don't need or want the old clutter), and I've just started up so cannot poke around in me own logs to check for you, sorry.
You'll need to use something like netstat to see what's listening on your TCP ports.