Well, let's take a stab at this, shall we?
"My apologies in advance if this is not the right place to be asking this. I'm new to the graphic design world and I have been reading as much as I can while trying to apply it toward AI. I have a list of graphic design elements that I have learned to work with in AI.
1.) Does the list above seem comprehensive as far as the basic elements of graphic design taught universally? Should form/volume/mass be included on this list as well OR do they belong under some other category?
Let's try to keep in mind that AI is a software program, a mere set of "tools" that allow you to create. So, your list is not even close to everything you can design using Illustrator.
2.) What then are the following called? Are these just ways to organize the graphic design elements?
No. This list has a variety of words that describe elements in Illustrator files. Don't forget, each job assignment is different. Each project is different. Each Ai file is different unless it is a duplicate. Graphic design is a discipline. The actual parameters for a project are going to come from a client or associate who needs a "solution" to a particular set of problems. So, some words you will use, some you won't.
Ai = Tools. Design = You. Did you wake up one day and see that everything designed with Illustrator was perfect? Did design evolve into a perfect form of expression because software writers, coders, and engineers came up with the perfect design solution? I doubt it. Proportion, rhytym, proportion, shapes, variety are all things that come from you, Illustrator just gives you the ability to put it together.