Welcome to the forum.
First, a few questions:
Do other PSD's look correct in Ps?
Do you have a Save_As_a_Copy from the design process?
Any other Saved files, such as if you did a Save_As, you would have the previous version?
Can you Open that PSD in another program, such as IrfanView (free)?
I have no Save_as files from that file, also other files are opening fine. Tried that IrfanView, but still the same picture... Appearently file didn't save properly ,when I rstarted, because I used fast way with the restart button. Could backuping system help in this case?
Was yout copy of Photoshop fully updated when you created and/or saved that file?
There was a bad bug in Photoshop 13.0.0 and no one should be running that version. Any files saved in 13.0.0 are potentially permanently and irreparably damaged. Hope that wasn't your case.
After looking at your image, that looks more like corruption from bad hardware trouble.