Try a pattern brush.
Presuming a non skewed/perspective appearance, depending on the angle and shape of the tread marks, there are a few ways to do it, including possibly multiple instances of Pattern Brush, Art Brush, Blend, Effect>Distort & Transform>Transform, maybe even Dashed Line. Some of them are mentioned/illustrated in this thread:
The easiest/best way(s) would depend on the actual appearance of the tread marks, including whether they have different shapes, so a draft/screenshot/photo/closer description might help helpers help.
An easy way to do it would be to (View>Smart Guides are your friends):
1) With the Ellipse Tool (ClickHold the Rectangle Tool and see the options fly out) Alt/Option click the centre of the tire path (Smart Guides say center), then set the Width and Height high enough to make it outside the outer rim of the tire path, then remove Fill and Stroke;
2) With the Selection Tool ShiftClick the circle from 1) and then the tread mark, and Ctrl/Cmd+G to Group them;
3) Effect>Distort & Transform>Transform, setting Rotation to 360/N where N is the total number of tread marks, and setting Copies to one less (N - 1);
To get rid of the circles, and to have actual tread marks:
4) Select the Group and Object>Expand Appearance;
5) With the Direct Selection Tool ClickDrag over the circles and press Delete twice.
That will leave you with all the tread marks in a Group.
Thank you Jacob! That's exactly what I needed!
You are welcome, Mallory.
An afterthought: If you (now or later) wish to turn the white tread marks into cutouts from the tyre (so that any background colour will show through, you may:
6) If you have created the tread mark group and/or the tyre as stroke/nofill paths, select it/them and Object>Path>outline Stroke (the tyre will become a Compound Path);
7) With both selected, Pathfinder>Minus front.
That should subtract the tread mark shapes from the tyre shape so you have a Compound Path with cuts into the outer rim.
It would also remove whichever part of the white tread marks is outside the rim.
You should always save a copy of the artwork to keep, before you do anything irreversible, such as outlining (live Type or strokes).