Primary text frame could be what you're looking for.
Select this option when you create a new document then if you alter the dimensions of the frame on your master page that will resize frames throughout your document.
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if the other frames
1. are on the same spread and
2. also are selected
you could use a script like the one released lately by Marc Autret:
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One more idea...
What if you just create an object style for the text frames? This works for 1 or more columns, though I am showing just one.
- Window > Styles > Object Styles
- Create a new style based on [Basic Text Frame]
- Text Frame General Options > Columns > Fixed Width. I have the Number set to 1 and the width at 3.25". When I edit the style and change the width value, the frames using that Object style update automatically. (The images are small—click to enlarge)