Within Layer Effects no. Unlike illustrator, Photoshop does not have global colors.
However there is a way which does not rely on grouping similar colors together.
1.Create a color fill layer and turn it into a smart object.
2.Duplicate that smart object as many times as needed.
3.Move each copy above the layers that need the color fill and Alt click to clip them to the layer
4. Turn off the visibility of the original "Master" smart object.
Now to change colors just double click on the master SO, and in the psb change the color of the color fill layer. All the copies will change when the SO is closed and saved.
This can be used with several master layers to create a pallete for your document that can be changed at will
Fantastic! Its still quicker than going in and manually adjusting.