This is not a need I've run across, but it seems to me one possible workaround would be to create the bleed at the largest dimension, then add some master guides in your alternate layouts, if you feel you need them, and finally, specify the bleed rather then "use document bleed settings" when exporting.
Oh, there will be a lot of us with this need. I work at a large ad agency and we can't implement this feature at the production stage (we allow people to use it for creative, comps, digital etc) because we need the bleed and slug areas to be independent per page for each publication as well. Work arounds aren't acceptable in our workflow - but this feature is so new, we are fine to stick with the old way for now. It also breaks our internal slugging workflow because we rely on text variables which are document dependent and we would need them to be page dependent. BUT, that I doubt annoys anyone else and is understandable - so not complaining there. But the bleed and slug tied to the document are going to need to change. I'm heading over to put in an official request now.
Yes, a lot of us need different bleed settings.
What I recommend is as Peter recommended to set up the bleed to the biggest needed bleed but not guides would help. You need to set up pdf export settings for each purpose or printer and set up there the needed bleed.
@JunkersDesign – do as Bob or Willi recommended.
Further you could reduce bleed on the output side with Acrobat Pro and its Crop Pages panel.
There is a "BleedBox" entry where you can reduce the amount.
I to have this problem right now, I see this post was made over a year ago. Do anyone know if its possible to do the different bleeds for alternate layouts with the cc or cc2014?
no, it is not possible.
Bleed settings are a document wide setup. But you can define them in the PDF Export. You can specify different PDF export settings with different bleeds. I would recommend to set up the document with the largest bleed.