For tracking and kerning, it's a KEYBOARD increment, not the up and down arrows in the field.
To set tracking with this increments, select the characters you want to apply the tracking to. Then hold down Option (Mac) / Alt (Windows), and press the Left Arrow key to decrease tracking in increments (you've set 5 units). Press Right Arrow to increase tracking.
To kern with this increment, place an insertion point between two characters. Hold down Option/Alt and press the Left Arrow key to decrease kerning and Right Arrow to increase kerning in the increments you've set.
BTW, it works the same way in Illustrator.
I see. Just out of curiosity, is is possible to change the default increments in that field of the control bar? Since the arrows are there (next to the field), it seems like you should be able to set the increments by which clicking on them will increase or decrease the tracking.
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Would be nice, wouldn't it? Unfortunately it isn't possible yet.