I have been trying to find ways to nudge the InDesign layers by selecting the specific layer/layers in the layers pallete. At the moment, the only way I know to move the layers, is by selecting and clicking on the layer on the document itself. The issue was, that when I duplicate a group of layers, I could not just select the duplicated layers, but I had to select every component of the duplicated layers on top of the original layer, so I could not simply drag and drop a selection cursor.
But the point being, is there any way to nudge the InDesign layers by selecting the specific layer/layers in the layers palette.
Not exactly. You can't nudge the layers, but you can select all the objects on them (on a spread-by-spread basis) and move them all together. To do that click the small square to the right of the layer name, or Alt/Opt click the layer name itself.
Layer in ID are more similar to layers in Illustrator than they are to Photoshop.