If you have Photoshop CS6 and turned on auto recovery --- then the document you were working on will load when you load Photoshop next time.
Otherwise, no, there is nothing left of the document in progress.
I'm using Photoshop CS3
I'm sorry to hear about your loss of data, but it's high time to upgrade, while you can still get good pricing. Photoshop CS3 is the oldest version you can upgrade to Photoshop CS6.
thanks for mentioning that! from Adobes site: "Owners of CS3 and CS4 individual products and suite editions will receive temporary upgrade pricing to CS6 until December 31, 2012. After that date, only customers on CS5 or CS5.5 will qualify for upgrade pricing to CS6." The price listed is $199.00.