You had to do nothing.
Now you need to go fix your RGB workingspace and set it back to a standard and not your display.
To elaborate on what Chris has said, you absolutely DON'T want to make your document working space your monitor profile. Your documents need to be saved and published in a standard color space such as Adobe RGB or sRGB IEC61966-2.1.
Photoshop automatically takes on the task of transforming the color values in your document for proper display on your calibrated monitor, based on the profile that the calibration software has set up at the operating system level to be associated with the monitor. If you want to verify that association, click Start, type color management into the search box, click Color Management when it comes up, and see what the default is set to in the Devices tab for your monitor.
You should seek out multiple references on how color-management really works, and read all you can to get your head around it. It's nearly impossible to gain a good working knowledge of color-management on a forum one post at a time, and unfortunately you really can't make the proper decisions and set the proper preferences without a good knowledge of how it all works. And always keep in mind that there's a lot of misinformation out there.
Thanks Chris and Noel,
I have set my settings back according following screenshot:
I hope these settings are correct then. And Noel, i think you are so right i have to dive in this interesting topic and for sure i will. To speed up the process for now i hope you can aknowledge if the screen does represent the settings i should use.
Adobe RGB (1998) is certainly a more appropriate working profille than your monitor profile. But assuming "Uit" means "Off", I'd say the Color Management Policies section may still need work.
No one but you can say whether they're the settings "you should use". We simply don't know your goals, how you want to work, what you want to do when there are mismatches, etc.
Bear in mind there are no "this is the one right way" settings. Every single one of them has a use and a reason for being presented to you.
Here's a snapshot of my particular color preferences. Since I publish a lot online and my inkjet printer prefers sRGB input, I have chosen sRGB IEC61966-2.1 as my default RGB working space. If you're printing more often to wide gamut printers then it may be more appropriate for your Photoshop to prefer to use the wider gamut Adobe RGB (1998) color space - or even others.