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Color profiles must play a role in it.
You've cut a chip off an iceberg with that statement.
Photoshop is a fully color-managed application, and assuming you've got a calibrated and profiled monitor and a document whose color space is described by a profile, the colors you see when Photoshop shows you a preview of a document are accurate.
Internet browsers (and other applications) range from completely NOT color-managed, to partially color-managed, to fully color-managed.
As you can imagine, mismatches in that environment are to be expected. To go further into just what you're seeing we'd have to discuss specifics, and you'll need an understanding of how color-management works.
Unfortunately, such an understanding CANNOT be derived post by post in a forum. It's been tried.
Seek multiple sources that describe how color-management works. Watch out for misinformation or missing information, as a lot of folks who don't really know all they need to know to teach it still often try to do so. Especially avoid sources that try to cut to the chase and just say "do it like this". Bear in mind that there is a good reason that every single setting and function is there, to fit YOUR needs. There is no universal "set it and forget it" approach.
Calibrate your monitor and use a color managed browser like Safari or Firefox (if enabled), or even Opera. Photoshop is right, but don't set it to Monitor Color.
Here is some tips I found on the web, from a trusted source,comment them if you like:
Disabling Photoshop’s RGB Color Management
These instructions are for Photoshop CS5 on Mac and Windows. Setting up CS4 is very similar.
Step 1: Go to Edit → Color Settings and set the working space for RGB to Monitor RGB.
Step 2: Open a document and go to Edit → Assign Profile, then set it to Working RGB. This must be done for every single document you work on.
Step 3: Ensure View → Proof Colors is turned off.
Step 4: When saving files with Save for Web & Devices, ensure that Convert to sRGB is turned off. If you’re saving a JPEG file, then also turn off Embed Color Profile (you may want this turned on for certain photos, but chances are you’ll want it off for interface elements and icons).
According to the source, following the above, will eliminate the color dicrepancies of a picture/document/shape viewed in Ps in comparison with being viewed in a browser.
What about Chrome?
Is he color-managed like the other browsers?