wow lots of questions! lets just start at a few things....
i had to visually break down the pieces in my head.....
create the target shapes first with the colors (the circles), gradients within each circle
then the rays ( the ones coming out from the center)
then add glow effects to the rays
and perhaps a vignette at the end (before you drop in the person)
the rays are not in the correct angle, some are far (in example) 25 degree from another, other are far 35 etc, it's not the same distance for every ray...
what can i do?
This would be a bit easier to do in Illustrator as you can rotate each object around its pivot point that can be placed at the center of the entire graphic. Making it quite simple to fine tune it as necessary.