Not that I know of. The info is stored in the file in a way that it would require some specific quick view plug-in to do that. There may be some way using Apple Script, but that sure will end up involving AE somewhere along the way, still, even if just to launch it and intercept a warning about the file version and then shut it down....
If you open an AEP file in a text editor like BBEdit you can actually
see which version of AE created it by looking in the meta data at the
end of the file:
<xmp:CreatorTool>Adobe After Effects CS5.5 10.5 Macintosh 64</xmp:CreatorTool>
I can't find anything in the file that shows which version of file it
was saved as, though...
Opening a binary file like this in a text editor always comes with a
risk of you accidentally changing something that will make your file
corrupt, so be careful.
To elaborate on Jonas' suggestion: That metadata thing will only work, if you have the pref set accordingly. If you never use XMP it's of no use, e.g. you'd never see it in any of my files because I just hate XMP polluting everything and have turned it off.