Please try couple of probable solutions as mentioned below:
1. Close Elements.
2. Launch the Photoshop Elements Welcome Screen and hold down ctrl + alt + shift as you click Editor.
3. Continue to hold the keys until you see a message box asking if you want to delete Photoshop Elements settings file; click Yes. Elements will open with default preferences.
Solution 2: In case any network printer is attached try to launch without network or printer uninstall or make different printer as default.
Solution 3: Try launching with anti-virus off or removing PSE from conflicting list.
On the drive on which you have installed PSE,on my machine it is on C:
Go to C:\Program Files\Adobe\Photoshop Elements 10\Locales\<locale>\Plug-Ins\Import-Exportand you will find twain plug-in. Remove that plug-in from that location and copy it somewhere else.
Now launch PSE and check if it works.
I have a very similar problem.
Elements 10 Editor fails to open. I do not get any error codes simply the message that reads "Adobel Photoshop Elements 10 has stopped working. A problem caused the program to stop working correctly. Windows will close the program and notify you if a solution is available". (Seen that message lots of times in various programs, can't recall Windows ever getting back to me with a solution so I'm not holding my breath that I will ever get notified of a solution, but I digress).
I tried reinstalling Elements (and Premier as I have the dual package programs), uninstalled by clicking on Install on the DVD (strange way to get the uninstall to work but thats how it is). I understand this way is best so I don't lose the ability to reinstall the program due to limited number of installs. I reinstalled. Same error. Repeated the uninstall and then this time also went to Control Panel and uninstalled everything with Adobe in the name. Reboot, re-install retry, no effect same erro. Repeat the above two uninstalling processes and then this time to into the Registry and remove all reference to Adobe Elements (and was surprised by how many references to Elements continued to exist even after the un-installing. Thought this would work. I was wrong. After the reinstall I get exactly the same error. I tried to watch when Elements Editor tries to open to see if I could read what it is doing when it fails, it seems to fail just as the window opens after its run through all those things it loads in the blue window. The blue window disappears, the gray window opens, and then crash.
I have tried each of the solutions offered above to the OP. I don't see any reply indicating it worked for him either.
Funny thing is that Elements 10 used to work on this Windows 8 system (FYI it is Windows 8 Pro edition, 64bit). I've had to reinstall Windows 8 a few times since I 'up'-graded to Windows 8 in the fall, it seems to be a rather fragile OS, previous re-installs did not hurt Elements 10, but this most recent one did.
Is there a patch to improve Elements 10's compatibility with Windows 8?
Is there a setting in Windows 8 that is more Elements 10 friendly?