Your system has probably a damaged color profile somewhere, usually a monitor or printer profile, and it's causing mayhem when AI saves the file and tries to embed that info. Some colors simply work because their values need no profile conversion or are translated directly without more complex math getting involved. Check your color profiles, remove any third-party ones, reset your system's color management in teh graphics driver asnd monitor setting. Then recalibrate everything/ get usable vendor profiles.
What I did now is selected a different printer as default printer for my laptop. This seems to work. I have never worked with color profiles before, but I will look into it if more problems arrise.
Ah yes, incompatible printer drivers/ settings have plagued AI forever. Glad you could fix it so easily.