I might be able to help if I knew something about what codec you were trying to use for rendering, about what size your composition was, and at least a bit about the project like maybe plug-ins that may have been used.
The number of images is insignifigant but the size may be. Your footage, your images that are used in the timelipse, should be at 100% scale at some point in the project. Judging by the file size (which has nothing to do with the image dimensions) these images may be 2 or 3 times bigger than a standard HD composition so the footage is probably scaled to 50% or less in your project. If this is the case, you could easily be running out of memory. Do a batch resize of the images to get them close to the comp size. If I knew what OS you weere using, what version of AE, and how much memory I may be able to tell you if this is the problem.
The other thing that may be happening is that you've set the work area to only a few seconds and you are using the default settings for the render cue so only the work area is being rendered. I know nothing about your render settings either so This may be the problem.
Give these suggestions a try. If they work, fine. If they don't please give us enough information so that we can help.
Sounds like you have a framerate mismatch somewhere. check your comp settings, footage interpretation and render settings. Especially when you rely on some of the output module presets e.g. for H.264 this could be an issue because inside the encoder there may be a different framerate than in your comp. in any case, some more info would be useful, since we don't even know your version of AE...