Not really. You'd have to do most of the work in a 3D application: Blender is pretty darn good, and it's free. It takes a good deal of work to learn it.
3ds max and/or maya can?
just an OT question
blender vs 3dsmax vs maya vs cinema 4d?
You could morph the particle clouds in Trapcode Form 2 or Plexus 2, but obviously you'd still have to model the character first and define the poses. I'll spare the "which program is better" discussion as this would merely be a pointless, endless thread. They all have their pros and cons and some work better for certain kinds of work than otehrs, while on an other project it may be the otehr way around. if you really wanted to get into this, I'm sure you can spend the next half year discussing this on some 3D forums - still without getting any useful definite answers. Just pick up Blender. It's free! Be glad you have these opportunities these days...
Given enough patience and a lot of artistic ability you could create the whole thing in AE using just 3D layers masks and standard filters but you would need a lot of layers and it would take a very long time to duplicate the look. Throwing in some 3rd party plug-ins, as Mylenium suggested, would make things a lot easier. The easiest thing to do would be to create the humanoid in a 3D app and then finish in AE.
The commercial apps have a little better support, some different rendering engines, more plug-ins and other advantages but Blender can do amazing things and it's not that hard to use. The techniques apply to most 3D apps but the UI and the menu structure is different. If you've got a couple of thousand dollars to invest in a 3D program then download the demos, look at the tutorials, and check with others you may be working with. If you're just learning then start with Blender.