How would that be possible? Your divide layer operates on all the layers below and then in turn its result is processed with whatever other stuff is happening. This is perfectly normal and short of PS taking the step of merging all layers below automatically as a copy and applying the blending mode, I see no way how it would be technically or mathematically feasible to retain the result of such operations. And the answer is all right there - duplicate whatever layers are involved before the divide and merge them, then use the divide layer's mask to create a selection on it and merge that further with whatever layers you have on top...
Short answer: No.
A "layer" with a specific blending mode implies a sequence of math operations on a given pixel. Think of the visible pixel R, G, and B values as the result of a potentially complex math formula that combines numbers from each layer in complex ways (those ways being defined by the blending mode you've chosen). You can't always simplify particular factors of your choosing in a given math formula.
The next step is to examine why you would want to do so. Perhaps there's a more direct way to achieve your goal that would avert the need entirely.
Another possibility, if the effect of several layers together is something you'd like to manipulate as a unit, is to Group the layers.