If your iPhone is seeing your MacBook, that means the Edge Inspect app is running. You won't see it in the standard app area, it should show up in the top menu bar area on the right side.
As far as not seeing the passcode, do you have the Chrome browser open and the Edge Inspect Chrome extension installed? When a device wants to connect you should see a small green plus icon on the Edge Inspect icon. Opening the dialog should display the passcode entry field. Once you get your device connect, most of your interactions with Edge Inspect should take place in that dialog in Chrome.
Hope this helps,
I also have this issue running 10.8.2. Edge Inspect fails to load, Console entries claim it crashed as per below
21/02/13 11:45:28.254 AM EdgeInspect: objc: Class WebCoreTextFieldCell is implemented in both /System/Library/Frameworks/WebKit.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/WebCore.framework/Versions/A/WebCore and /Applications/Adobe Edge Inspect.app/Contents/Frameworks/dvawebview.framework/Versions/A/cef//libcef.dylib. One of the two will be used. Which one is undefined.
21/02/13 11:45:28.367 AM EdgeInspect: *** Terminating app due to uncaught exception 'NSRangeException', reason: '*** -[__NSArrayM objectAtIndex:]: index 1 beyond bounds [0 .. 0]' *** Call stack at first throw: ( 0 CoreFoundation 0x972f612b __raiseError + 219 1 libobjc.A.dylib 0x973bf52e objc_exception_throw + 230 2 CoreFoundation 0x971ecc3b -[__NSArrayM objectAtIndex:] + 251 3 CoreFoundation 0x971cc6d8 CFArrayGetValueAtIndex + 88 4 EdgeInspect 0x0000e808 _ZN3App16GetDefaultLocaleERSbIhSt11char_traitsIhEN7dvacore7utility19SmallBlockAllocator12STLAllocatorIhEEE + 816 5 EdgeInspect 0x0000ebb5 _ZN3App14GetLocaleToRunERSbIhSt11char_traitsIhEN7dvacore7utility19SmallBlockAllocator12STLAllocatorIhEEE + 147 6 EdgeInspect 0x0000f741 _ZN3App13PreInitializeEv + 773 7 EdgeInspect 0x00015d81 main + 113 8 EdgeInspect 0x00002735 start + 53 )
21/02/13 11:45:29.598 AM com.apple.launchd.peruser.501: ([0x0-0x30d30d].com.adobe.EdgeInspect.application) Job appears to have crashed: Trace/BPT trap: 5
21/02/13 11:45:30.035 AM ReportCrash: Saved crash report for EdgeInspect version 1.0.327 (1.0.327.385782) to /Users/allanbanks/Library/Logs/DiagnosticReports/EdgeInspect_2013-02-21-114530_Banksy-MBP.crash
I responded to your previous post on another other thread here: http://forums.adobe.com/thread/1093079
Have you made sure you have the latest version of the Edge Inspect desktop application installed?
Was Edge Inspect ever working for you and if so, what changed?
Also note that it's easier for us to respond to and help with an issue when you confine your posts on a single issue to a single thread.