All 3 problems sound like bugs in your video card driver.
Have you updated your video card driver from the GPU maker's website?
The Dell rep updated the video card driver remotely for me this afternoon. It is a 1GB AMD Radeon HD 7770 graphics card. It didn't do a thing. Same problems.
Did he update it from AMD, Microsoft (mistake), or Dell (big mistake)?
Again, the problems you describe are due to the video card or it's driver.
For the time being you could turn off the GPU in Photoshop's preferences.
But at some point you're going to want to make sure you have a working GPU system.
I agree with Chris that all your issues sound like video card driver problems, or a defective card.
Go to the ATI website http://support.amd.com/us/gpudownload/Pages/index.aspx and get the latest update. The catalyst 13.2 beta seems to work well with photoshop.
I turned off the GPU in Photoshop's preferences as you suggested and everything seems to work properly now in Photoshop. In Adobe bridge the files are also all showing now and there doesn't seem to be the same issue there either.
I also tried enabling the GPU and changing it to Basic and it continues to work, but when it is changed to advanced when enabled the problems arise again.
So it seems as though the problem is with the video card or its driver as you said. I am not 100% sure that the Dell rep updated the driver from AMD but I am pretty sure he did. I did go to the AMD website and ran a program to detect if the driver needs to be updated and it resulted in a message saying that the driver is up to date and current.
As you said this is just a temporary solution and I want to make sure I have a working GPU system. What do you think the problem is then? How would you suggest I proceed? Should I contact Dell and tell them the problem seems to be with the installed video card?
What version of the driver does it say you had? 12.8 and 13.2 beta seem to work well. The ones between those versions have problems.
As far as I can tell it is now updated to 13.1 and has problems as you said the versions between 12.8 and 13.2 beta have. What is 13.2 beta? Why does it only update to 13.1 when using the updating device? It gives me a message that I have the most up to date version.
I am going to call Dell again tomorrow and try and ask them to look into it again.
The other thing I read on the AMD website is about the microsoft.net framework. Do I need to also install this or should it already be on the computer with Windows 8?
Had another thought. Do you have an onboard GPU also? If so disable it as PS has trouble with 2 dissimilar cards.