Your line breaks will most likely be incorrect if you don't turn on the Japanese Composer.
It is almost absolutely impossible to accomplish your goal without having a font - any font - installed on your system that has that glyph. However, if it's showing up in Word, than means that you must have that glyph installed, right? What font are you trying to use in InDesign? You might already know that Word will auto-substitute fonts when it encounters a missing glyph, so we really don't know what font is being used to render that one glyph. The whole sentence might be in MS Mincho but one glyph might be pulled from another font if MS Mincho doesn't have that glyph.
That being said, you're going to break it if you don't know how to set Japanese type in ID. It's not something where you can just copy text out of email and paste into your English layout.
It may be useful to know that InDesign organizes fonts by broad language categories, and Japanese fonts fall near the bottom of the list.
Thanks for all the help and guidance!
With the pink boxes selected (pasted Japanese characters from Word) on a blank page in InDesign, I found a font set on my system named Kozuka Mincho Pro that when selected looks like the characters provided by the Japanese translator. There are actually two of this family.... Kozuka Gothic Pro and Kozuka Mincho Pro. It appears that the Gothic version is san-serif, and the Mincho version is serif. Using these two character sets, I laid out the pages and printed them out for my girlfriend's colleague to proof.
Hey, it's a start! It'll be interesting to see how it turned out.