Scaling? No difference whatsoever. That is different from the issue of image upsampling / interpolation.
Photoshop offers both options. In Image=>Image Size, if you don't specify Resample Image, if you change the dimensions, the effective resolution (pixels/inch, for example) will simply change to match. No data is added. No data is subtracted. If you do specify Resample Image, the image is either downsampled or upsampled / interpolated using the algorithm you specify which by default is bicubic automatic for the current version of Photoshop.
InDesign never resamples images when you place them. It simply uses the pixels in the image as-is. The effective resolution goes down if you upscale and up if you downscale. You can specify downscaling when you export or print, but any upscaling / interpolation is ultimately left to the printer (for PostScript and direct PDF printers) or possibly the print driver (non-PostScript or direct PDF printers).
With few exceptions, the most reliable workflows are those in which you don't muck around with resampling until the RIP process itself. Adobe PostScript and Adobe PDF Print Engine implementations typically do as good a job either downsampling or upsampling / interpolating as Photoshop does (we use the same code).
The main reason for resizing images in Photoshop is to apply “unsharp mask”, or another sharpening filter, viewing the image at 100% (actual pixels). Another reason is to reduce the size of the images so that you could save space on disk, print faster, etc. Here you can find a couple of scripts for resizing images.