I think something like this would better be done in Illustrator.
One option might be to start with a (edit: horizontal) »line« pattern and use the Filter Polar Coordinates,
To illustrate c.pfaffenbichler's great answer:
1) Use the line tool to create a line. Duplicate the line by holding option and dragging.
2) Select all of the shapes in the Layers Panel as shown above. At the top of the window, click on the distribute vertical centers icon highlighted below to evenly space the lines.
3) Control + click on the selected layers in the Layers Panel and select Merge Shapes to get all the lines on one layer.
4) Go to Filter > Distort > Polar Coordinates. Click OK when prompted to rasterize the layer.
5) Click OK again.
The finished result:
If you distributed the lines from the top to the bottom of the canvas, you should have concentric circles going all the way to the center.
I hope this is helpful, and thanks once more to c.pfaffenbichler!
Nice of you to make the effort to make a tutorial of it.
I’d like to add that converting the Layer to a Smart Object before applying the Filter might be useful if the distribution of the lines might be subject to changes later on.
Thanks, worked perfectly