You seem to have changed your workspace to not show the Tools panel, which is where the Pen tool and related controls are.
Choose the Standard workspace to get the Tools panel. If you've altered the Standard workspace, reset it. Instructions for choosing and resetting workspaces are here in After Effects Help.
I don't see a tool bar at all in your screenshot. G will select the pen tool. Hovering over a vertex will switch the pen tool to remove point. Holding down the Alt/Option key will give you the convert point tool when you hover over a vertex. Holding down the Cmnd/Ctrl key will give you the direct selection option.
To reset your workspace and return the Tool Bar go to Workspace > Reset Work Space
Thanks for pitching in Todd and Rick, I appreciate it very much.
As previously stated, I do have use of the pen tool, but it only has limited functionality as demonstrated by the path I created on the green meadow. My Tools Panel remains activated .
My core problem remains that I am unable to adjust the fill or stroke settings for my pen.
I have tried changing and resetting various work spaces and this has not helped.
I'm scratching my head here.
You are creating a mask path not a shape layer using stroke. Deselect everything in the timeline window. Select the pen tool, set stroke width, color, fill if you want and start setting points in the comp window. A new shape layer will be created using your path as a shape. This is completely different than a mask which has no fill or stroke properties.