Yes, it will continue when you close the browser.
Thanks, that is good to know.
It would also be interesting to know why that is the case, e.g. what happens in the background in CQ (like a workflow or background job is triggered?).
I also assume it is the same for package installations, they also continue (for the same reason?)
With your request you start a thread, which executes code. This thread is indepedent from the browser, which initiated that request. So even if the output is not received anymore by your browser, the thread continues to work.
To overcome this problem: You can use the background servlet feature. Just append the parameter "sling:bg=true" to your request and you can check the output of your request below /var/bg/jobs.