You can see paragraph styles listed down the left edge in Story Editor...
You can use Find/Change to locate any style...
Perhaps the easiest thing to do, though would be to assign character colors that are different for each style in the style defintions, and then your rainbow colored text ought to make things easy to find.
And there is Stylighter, a script by Marc Autret (based on findings by Jongware) to make visible all applied styles *without* changing the actual color of the styles:
Give it a try…
I'll have to check that out. Thanks!