I have had the exact same thing happen to me today, over and over. Before I realized that's because my operating system is 64-bit, not the 86-bit that is required for the new installation of Flash Player 11.6. You can find the 11.7 BETA version of flash and download that instead, it should work on both 32 and 64bit I think, it worked on my OS but it still crashes periodically, which is why I tried downloading the newer flash player in the first place. I'm trapped in between crappy flash players. The old one stopped working and the new one they're developing doesn't yet work right so there you have it.
Please try installing from the appropriate stand alone Windows installers located here:
This will work for both 32 and 64 bit systems and is the latest 11.6 release