I just downloaded the latest version of flash player, and did a test, and it says it is installed and working. I got the box showing it is active. But I cannot find the flash player program in my program files on the hard drive. Where is it located? And how do I really know for sure it is active?
It depends on the OS, but on Windows you'll find the files in C:\windows\system32\macromed\flash and if you are on a 64bit os, it will also be in C:\windows\syswow64\macromed\flash.
However, to determine if it's working you can simply navigate to this page: Flash Player Version