That is not possible. I just did a test, and I even entered Document Title and Author in File > File Info in InDesign and exported as JPEG. No information is available in Photoshop except the Creation Date. That's the only thing you could search for.
I have a jpeg image that was exported from indesign a long time ago. I no longer know where the indesign file is located or it's name, but I need to edit the text of the jpeg and the only way to do that is by editing the original indesign document and reexporting it. Is there a way to trace back an indesign document from which a certain jpeg was exported?
Depending on how the text interacts visually with the image, it might be possible to use the fill property of the content-aware deletion feature of recent Photoshop versions to remove the text with little or no evidence of the deletion, then apply text over the graphic however you like.
I knew it would be a longshot, but I looked to see whether a JPEG exported from IDCS4 contained the OriginalDocumentID (part of XMP's Media Management Properties). ID apparently doesn't do this for JPEGs, but it does for PDFs, and Bridge can find it (searching All Metadata for an abbreviated string).
Does the JPEG's time stamp tell you anything? Do you have some distinctive text you can use for a text search? Do you need to search more than one computer? I try to avoid Windows Explorer's search files, but it must skip ID files; however, most of my ID files pass through PDF, and Acrobat 9 Pro's Search (as opposed to Find) can check all the PDFs on local hardware for a text string.