Welcome to the forum.
The Rode Podcaster is a USB mic, and PrPro can have issues with those - some work, but many do not.
Do you have a non-USB mic. (1/8" connector), to test with, by plugging it into your computer, either on the sound card, or the MoBo with an embedded audio chip? That would be my first step.
I agree with Bill. USB mics are iffy with PP. Pick yourself up something like a Sure SM-57 and plug that into the machine's mic input.
Having the same problem just now. FC7 has no problems with the Podcaster but Premiere CC sees the mic but will not let you enable record on a channel.
Come on Adobe pick your freakin' game up. We all pay heavily for this piece of "professional" software at least get the basics right.