well, it looks like among your deletions are UI fonts adobe needs. you can try deleting your preferences or uninstalling and reinstalling as a last resort.
as for windows font management, i use MainType from high-logic.
It looks to me like the font database has gone corrupt. Try cleaning the font cache files by searching for AdobeFnt*.lst in your explorer search. Shut down all Adobe apps first and then delete these .lst files from their actual location that shows up in the result list. If this doesn't help, then after deleting the .lst files, try un-installing and re-installing your Adobe applications.
No luck. Deleted them all and nothing seemed to change...
Really want to avoid having to re-install (it's a work computer and that means getting IT involved - which is always a headache).
Did you restart the computer and then reopen the apps to force a new cache file to be written?