You know, I would've thought that by owning Photoshop AND Acrobat Professional, this would've been a pretty straightforward thing to acheive
I guess just because there can be things called »Layers« in files in both applications doesn’t mean they are closely related or easily transferred.
You may want to ask over at the Acrobat Forum if it’s possible to export a layered image format from Acrobat or automate exporting sepearate files per Layer.
The long answer is: No. As Mr. Pfaffenbichler already said "layers" has a completely different meaning in both programs. PDfs are object-centric and "layers" are merely a means to determine certain visibility options for a set of "objects" and how they interact with the document structure, but that doesn't mean they are necessarily visually arranged like you would with PS layers...
No problem then, slightly dissapointing. Layers and objects have completely different meaning in AutoCad, Maya or 3DS Max yet you can transfer between these different programs.
Would've thought Adobe could've had something here.
In any case, I just wrote a batch export script from the program generating the PDF's to make it so it exports one PDF per layer then in PS I can use that default script to load images into layers or whatever it calls. There's always a way I guess!