There is probably a better way to do this, but I found a work around. I set the fields on the master page to "Use Global Data" in the Binding tab. This means that the value for that field will be the same for any field with the same name. Then, on my main page, I have a hidden field with the same name that I can populate with ColdFusion and the value will also show in the master page.
If anyone has a more elegant way to do this, please respond. I am new to LiveCycle and I'm sure there are a lot of features that I am not aware of that could help me.