Welcome to the forum, kmiyamoto.
Usually what you're seeing is an indication of a display driver fault.
One thing you can probably do right away to work around the problem is go into your Preferences - Performance dialog, click the [Advanced Settings...] button, then change the Drawing Mode to Basic. After doing so, close/quit Photoshop, then restart it so that the setting will take effect.
Are you on Mac or PC?
If you're on a PC, chances are good that you can visit the web site of the maker of your video card (or the laptop maker if it's that kind of machine) and download and install an updated display driver for your hardware and operating system. That may allow you to use Normal or Advanced mode again.