There are no columns features in Photoshop.
Use View > New Guide > vertical and (for example for a 5 mm spacing) instead of "x" px insert 20,75 cm and 21,25 cm.
Or to place a new vertical guide in the exact centre of the image use 50pc which is 50%.
With the ruler turned on, you can drag from the square in the top left corner of the top and side rulers, to the top of the vertical guide you've just made. It will snap into place. If your rulers are not already set to centimetres:
Ctrl (Cmd) k > Units and Rulers