Difficult to offer advice without seeing what you are trying to achieve. Can you post the image? Lots of ways to do a chrome effect, depending on the shape of the object. For instance, using Layer Styles Bevel & Emboss, and changing the Gloss contor to Ring (second from left on the bottom row). Exagerating contrast with Curves, or dodge and burn also works well. Will this chrom surface be reflecting anything, (as real chrome would do) ?
Well, I have certainly been able to duplicate the difference. The Chrome filter seems to be pixel dependant, rather than size dependant, and the filter settings don't come close to containing a large image size. But the Chrome filter is not particularly precise one, so you could apply it before resizing, and resize using Bicubic Smoother. A 10x enlargement is still going to produce jaggies, but gaussian blur will fix that:
Apply Chrome filter to 1000 pixel square image
Resize to 10,000 pixels using Bicubic smoother
Lock layer transparency (to prevent blur from bleeding)
Gaussian blur 5
Repeat Gaussian blur
Levels to repair black point.
Actual pixel size detail
Otherwise, there are heaps of chrome effect tuts out there.